By: Lama Al-Johani
The first Islamic state started to form with the migration of prophet MUHAMMAD (peace be upon him) and his followers to Medina, which developed into a great empire 150 years later. The establishment of the city of BAGHDAD in the Abbasid caliphate in 762 AD announced the birth of the Golden age of Islam. Until the raid of Baghdad by the Mongols in 1256 AD, the Islamic culture was incomparable with any other. During this era, the accomplishments of the Muslim scholars in the different scientific fields took place, playing a major role in changing the direction of civilization revolution that took place in Europe, for example, was based on the knowledge and discoveries of the Muslim scholars.
Different factors helped In bringing about the Golden age of Islam.
- Empire spread over many territories, bringing several civilization with their knowledge, sciences and scholars under one rule and unifying the whole Empire under one language, the language of the Holy QURAAN.
- There were no political boundaries with the Empire and trade routes were safe, encouraging more interaction and information movement within the Empire.
- However, the introduction of the paper industry from the China into the Islamic Empire replaced hides and papyrus, which caused public education to spread rapidly and triggered the establishment of large, public libraries throughout the Empire.
These factors altogether made the Golden age possible.
- Muslim scholars made many contributions to philosophy, mathematics, medicine, chemistry, physics, astronomy and the arts.
- Some of their contribution to mathematics include the replacement of the Roman numerals with the Arabic numbers (which they imported from India),developed trigonometry (a branch of mathematics), which helped Muslim mapmakers accurately measure distances around the world. They developed algebra from its origins in Greece and Egypt.